The placenta connects the mother's body and fetus

The placenta is the structure that connects the mother's body and fetus. In normal developing pregnancy postpartum its mass is about 500 grams, diameter - 15-20 cm, has a round shape and thickness of 2-3 cm. Any deviation from these values ??is considered a pathology.
Deviations in shape, size and attachment
Form the placenta, other than round, it is common, but in most cases does not disturb normal functioning. Some of the most common abnormalities are:
fenestrated placenta - a rare anomaly consisting in the absence of placenta in limited areas, which are seen only in films like windows.
Multilobarna placenta - placenta is divided into several lobes (parts). Part separation and extension of fetal vessels from one lobe to another before the merger and the formation of umbilical cord placenta is termed dvulobarna. If two (or more) lobes are completely separated, and their vessels are identifiable, the condition is referred to as double placenta.
Supplementary placenta - at a certain distance from the periphery of the placenta develops additional lobe with smaller dimensions associated with fetal vessels. The problem with this type of abnormality of the placenta retention additive lobe in the uterus after delivery of the placenta. This may be a cause of serous bleeding in the postpartum period. To this must be looking integrity of the placenta after her expulsion. Spotting defects in skins suspicious forfeit placental part.
Placenta ring-shaped - is a rare anomaly. The placenta has the shape of a ring with a central part which is atrophied. Often, the ring is not complete and the placenta is taking shape of a horseshoe. This anomaly is essential for fetal development during pregnancy as it can be the cause of growth retardation.
Deeply attached placenta - in normal pregnancy chorionic villi of the placenta does not penetrate deeply into the uterine lining, which allows its easy removal at the last stage of labor. In pathological changes in the endometrium - decidua, villi penetrate a greater depth, reaching the muscle layer of the uterus, and sometimes even the abdominal cavity. Often this pathology combined with placenta previa - a low placenta attached.


Bleeding in the placenta occurred mainly as a result of hypertension and kidney disease in the mother. For their appearance contributes to the pull cord to the movement of the fetus, as well as strong uterine contractions. Some bleeding can remain latent and clinically diagnosed after birth by characteristic changes in the placenta. Sometimes bleeding is increased significantly and spread to cancellous layer of the uterus causes the detachment of the placenta with fetal distress and premature birth.